貸款的經驗分享

快樂的故事寫多了,今天來寫一個有一點慘的經驗,不過最後是遇上了貴人,順利交屋了。

買家是向曾經幾次跟listing agent 下offer的,dual agent的經驗不是太好,沒有顧及買家權益,透過朋友介紹找上了我,後來我們買了新房。

因為這買家已經有下過offer的經驗,貸款我也沒多問,只有老老實實地再把所有的disclosure/ offer 一起花時間讀過一次,確認自己的責任已盡,便向建商下了offer。

沒想到的事情太多,這買家的Pre Approval Letter是一家南灣還算有名的貸款經紀(Loan brokerage)開出來的。

  • 當初開Pre Approval Letter時連credit 都沒有check,之前有其他貸款還款卻未註銷
  • 沒想到買家自己從台灣轉來的down payment是用網路轉帳,小額小額陸續轉
  • 沒想到買家夫妻帳戶分開,沒有共同名字,多數的錢都在不是貸款人身上,銀行要算reserve的時候根本不足

買新房有prefer lender,為了credit可以拿,我們就用了prefer lender,建商趕著交屋,我們也趕著做貸款。 最後不斷銀行端找出了問題,一樣一樣需要補充說明、補足金額,加上一個非常嚴謹的underwriter,貸款做不出來了!!

經手60幾間房子,不一定每一個客戶的貸款都很順利,但是遇到貸款被完全拒絕還是第一次,失敗的經驗讓我自責,也從中學到教訓,希望寫出來跟大家分享,避免錯誤再次發生。

現在我還是希望與客人第一次都能見面聊聊,除了了解彼此的期待與買房流程簡介以外,我同時都會推薦一個以上資深的貸款經紀讓客人比較利率、貸款費問,並且仔細詢問銀行對於金流的要求。

請務必配合貸款經紀,讓銀行先查核信用分數,接下來所有的Down Payment來源,不管是在哪一個國家、是否涉及父母贈與、如何轉帳、如何交付都要follow 貸款經紀的指示,避免將來出錯,輕者賠償延長貸款時間的費用,最大的損失是會賠償3%押金。

這客戶的房子是順利交屋了,遇到問題時,不管如何先把貸款做下來,順利交屋再說,有更好的利率再做refinance。如果利率有跌,還算幸運。如果利率一路漲,加上賠給seller的錢橫豎都是損失。

買房是人生大事,攸關大筆金額請務必謹慎以對。還是重申,我不是貸款經紀,相關問題,請諮詢有執照的資深貸款經紀。另外,我們地產經紀轉介紹貸款經紀,是不能拿取任何佣金或rebate,kickback這是違法的,我們轉介的人,看重的是經驗老道且合作順利的經紀。貸款順利、買 (賣)屋順利是我與貸款經紀要努力為你做的事。

貸款試算器 https://www.mortgagecalculator.org/

以前寫過的文章,貸款名詞解釋

10個您需要知道的買房出支

如果您是首次購屋者,瞭解您必須支付出的以下十項買房額外費用,可以幫助您在付錢時比較有心理準備。
1.誠意金 (Earnest money)
為了證明您是有誠意的想要購買房屋,必須支付1%至2%的總購買價為誠意金。誠意金的大小是會根據市場因素而改變,如果您所在地區的房屋買賣市場很熱門,賣家可以要求比較多的誠意金,相對的如果市場冷卻,賣方可能只需要非常小額的誠意金。另外各州政府也有不同的誠意金金額規定管理。
2.託管賬戶 (Escrow account)
託管賬戶基本上是一種貸款公司確保您有足夠的資金來支付相關稅費和貸款保險。您需要支付的金額依照地區、貸款公司、貸款類型而異,可能包括了數個月至一年的費用。託管賬戶通常是在訂金低於20%以下所需,同時也是FHA首次購屋貸款強制必須要有的,但VA退伍軍官貸款並不需要。
3.貸款手續費 (Origination)
手續費通常金額頗高,這是必須支付給貸款經紀人或是貸款公司的手續費,包括承銷、始發和處理代理價錢。手續費通常只是貸款總金額的一小部分,通常為總金額的1%,請記得找貸款時還是得貨比三家。
4.房屋檢驗費用 (Inspection)
您要確保新家沒有任何損毀或是結構上的問題,例如漏水、害蟲、發霉等問題,就必須支付房屋檢驗費。通常房屋檢驗費大約介於$300至$500元左右,房屋檢驗可偵測出結構問題,淹水可能性,和其他重大問題。害蟲檢驗費用大約為$150左右,一般檢驗的重大害蟲為白蟻。
5. 律師費用 (Attorney)
少數地區在房屋成交時必須有律師在場,例如喬治亞州,大部份地區則不需要。如果您的所在地需要有律師協助成交,您就得支付律師費用。
6.信用檢查 (Credit check)
雖然網路上有免費的信用檢查,但一般貸款公司都不會接受這種免費報告,貸款公司所需信用檢查大約為30元。
7.額外保險 (Extra insurance)
如果您住在天災較多的地區,可能需要購買額外的保險,例如洪水、地震險等等。
8.估價費用 (Appraisal)
您的貸款公司一定要在知道房產公平價值後才會願意貸款給您,房地產估價費用大約為200至400元左右,以地區和房屋大小各有所異。
9.產權過戶費用 (Title Company)
您必須支付產權過戶費用給過戶公司,確保房產所有權是明確無誤的,通常貸款公司會推薦過戶公司給您,但您也可自己找尋合作公司。
10.土地勘測費用 (Survey)
土地勘測並不是必須的,但是貸款公司可能會要求您使用專業土地偵測,來確認您的地產大小界線,價格大約100元左右。
記住:您有議價能力,貨比三家,多做功課瞭解您的地區的平均費用,如果您對價錢不滿意,可議價,也可尋找別家公司服務。
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10 Home-Buying Costs You Need to Know About
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If you’re a first-time home buyer, you might get a little queasy when the last line of your good-faith estimate comes in at several thousand dollars. And after the color returns to your face, you might also be a little more than perplexed by some of those fees.
Knowing what you’re paying for—like these 10 common costs—can ease that check-writing pain.
1. Earnest money
To prove you’re “earnest” in your purchase commitment, expect to plunk down 1% to 2% of the total purchase price as an earnest money deposit. This amount can change depending on market factors. If demand in your area is high, a seller could expect a larger deposit. If the market is cold, a seller could be happy with less than 1%.
Other governing factors like state limitations and rules can cap how much earnest money a seller can ask for.
2. Escrow account
An escrow account is basically a way for your mortgage company to make sure you have enough money to cover related taxes and mortgage insurance. The amount you need to pay varies by location, lender, and loan type. It could cover costs for a few months to a year.
Escrow accounts are common for loans with less than a 20% down payment and mandatory for FHA loans, but it’s not required for VA loans.
3. Origination
The origination fee is a hefty one. It’s the price you pay the loan officer or broker for completing the loan, and it includes underwriting, originating, and processing costs.
The origination fee is a small percentage of the total loan. A typical origination fee is about 1%, but it can vary. Use your good-faith estimate to shop around.
4. Inspection
You want to be assured your new home is structurally sound and free of surprises such as leaks or pests living in the walls. Those assurances come with a price.
Home inspection: This is critical for home buyers. A good inspector will be able to notify you of structural problems, flooding issues, and other potentially serious problems. Expect to pay $300 to $500 for a home inspection, although cost varies by location.
Radon inspection: An EPA-recommended step, this inspection will determine whether your prospective home has elevated levels of the cancer-causing agent radon. A professional radon inspection can cost several hundred dollars.
Pest inspections: Roaches are one thing. Termites are a whole different story. Expect to pay up to $150 for a termite inspection.
5. Attorney
Some states, such as Georgia, require an attorney to be present at closing. In some other areas, this is optional. If you use a lawyer, expect to cover the costs, which vary by area and lawyer.
It’s typical for mortgage companies to have a lawyer on their end, although they should cover the bill.
6. Credit check
Just because you can get your credit report for free doesn’t mean your lender can (and it will actually pull all three). You have to reimburse the lender, usually around $30.
7. Extra insurance
If you live in a hazard-prone area, you might need to purchase extra insurance, like for flood.
8. Appraisal
Your lender won’t loan you money for a home without knowing what its fair market value is. An appraisal will cost $200 to $400, depending on location and property size.
9. Title company
You pay this to the title company to make sure the property’s title is free and clear. Your lender will recommend a title company, but you can also shop around for one.
10. Survey
It’s not required in all instances, but your lender may require a professional surveyor to determine exactly where your property lines are drawn. Prices vary widely, but expect to pay at least $100.
Remember: You have bargaining power. Shop around to get a feel for what rates and fees apply in your area. If you aren’t sure what a lender is charging, ask for an explanation—the charge might not be set in stone. If you’re unhappy with a charge, negotiate.
(Info Source: Realtor.com & wordpress.com)

十大房東省稅法/Top Ten Tax Deductions for Landlords

No landlord would pay more than necessary for utilities or other operating expenses for a rental property. Yet millions of landlords pay more taxes on their rental income than they have to. Why? Rental real estate provides more tax benefits than almost any other investment.

Every year, millions of landlords pay more taxes on their rental income than they have to. Why? Because they fail to take advantage of all the tax deductions available for owners of rental property. Rental real estate provides more tax benefits than almost any other investment.

Often, these benefits make the difference between losing money and earning a profit on a rental property. Here are the top ten tax deductions for owners of small residential rental property.

  1. Interest (利息)

Interest is often a landlord’s single biggest deductible expense. Common examples of interest that landlords can deduct include mortgage interest payments on loans used to acquire or improve rental property and interest on credit cards for goods or services used in a rental activity.

  1. Depreciation(折舊)

The actual cost of a house, apartment building, or other rental property is not fully deductible in the year in which you pay for it. Instead, landlords get back the cost of real estate through depreciation. This involves deducting a portion of the cost of the property over several years.

  1. Repairs(修繕費用,重新漆油漆、修屋頂排水管、漏水、修窗戶等等)

The cost of repairs to rental property (provided the repairs are ordinary, necessary, and reasonable in amount) are fully deductible in the year in which they are incurred. Good examples of deductible repairs include repainting, fixing gutters or floors, fixing leaks, plastering, and replacing broken windows.

Read Tips for Maximizing Repair Deductions to ensure your expense will constitute as a repair, not an improvement.

  1. Local Travel(就連幫租客服務的油錢都可以抵稅)

Landlords are entitled to a tax deduction whenever they drive anywhere for their rental activity. For example, when you drive to your rental building to deal with a tenant complaint or go to the hardware store to purchase a part for a repair, you can deduct your travel expenses.

If you drive a car, SUV, van, pickup, or panel truck for your rental activity (as most landlords do), you have two options for deducting your vehicle expenses. You can:

  • deduct your actual expenses (gasoline, upkeep, repairs), or
  • use the standard mileage rate (check the IRS website for current rates). To qualify for the standard mileage rate, you must use the standard mileage method the first year you use a car for your business activity. Moreover, you can’t use the standard mileage rate if you have claimed accelerated depreciation deductions in prior years, or have taken a Section 179 deduction for the vehicle.
  1. Long Distance Travel (遠距離的租客服務,機票、飯店、餐食都可以抵稅,留下證據跟發票,不可以趁機無限上綱)

If you travel overnight for your rental activity, you can deduct your airfare, hotel bills, meals, and other expenses. If you plan your trip carefully, you can even mix landlord business with pleasure and still take a deduction.

However, IRS auditors closely scrutinize deductions for overnight travel — and many taxpayers get caught claiming these deductions without proper records to back them up. To stay within the law (and avoid unwanted attention from the IRS), you need to properly document your long distance travel expenses.

  1. Home Office(居家工作室,相關費用需符合Home Business Tax Deductions) 

Provided they meet certain minimal requirements, landlords may deduct their home office expenses from their taxable income. This deduction applies not only to space devoted to office work, but also to a workshop or any other home workspace you use for your rental business. This is true whether you own your home or apartment or are a renter.

  1. Employees and Independent Contractors(聘請員工、技工費用)

Whenever you hire anyone to perform services for your rental activity, you can deduct their wages as a rental business expense. This is so whether the worker is an employee (for example, a resident manager) or an independent contractor (for example, a repair person).

Find out tax rules that apply to landlords who hire independent contractors to help them with their rental business, see Hiring Independent Contractors for Your Rental Activity.

  1. Casualty and Theft Losses (遭竊損失)

If your rental property is damaged or destroyed from a sudden event like a fire or flood, you may be able to obtain a tax deduction for all or part of your loss. These types of losses are called casualty losses. You usually won’t be able to deduct the entire cost of property damaged or destroyed by a casualty. How much you may deduct depends on how much of your property was destroyed and whether the loss was covered by insurance.

9.Insurance (保險)

You can deduct the premiums you pay for almost any insurance for your rental activity. This includes fire, theft, and flood insurance for rental property, as well as landlord liability insurance. And if you have employees, you can deduct the cost of their health and workers’ compensation insurance.

  1. Legal and Professional Services (專業服務支出:律師、會計師、管理公司、投資顧問等費用)

Finally, you can deduct fees that you pay to attorneys, accountants, property management companies, real estate investment advisors, and other professionals. You can deduct these fees as operating expenses as long as the fees are paid for work related to your rental activity.

特別的是,以27.5年的年限來針對房屋折舊抵稅。

Landlords can greatly increase the depreciation deductions they receive the first few years they own rental property by using segmented depreciation.

Careful planning can permit you to deduct, in a single year, the cost of improvements to rental property that you would otherwise have to deduct over 27.5 years.

You can rent out a vacation home tax-free, in some cases.

Most small landlords can deduct up to $25,000 in rental property losses each year.

A special tax rule permits some landlords to deduct 100% of their rental property losses every year, no matter how much.

People who rent property to their family or friends can lose virtually all of their tax deductions.

If you didn’t know one or more of these facts, you could be paying far more tax than you need to.

以上資料來自 http://www.nolo.com